Materi Kuliah Enterprise Information Systems

materi-kuliah-enterprise-information-systemsEkonomi.dikampus.com – Materi Kuliah Enterprise Information Systems ini diajarkan di Universitas Gunadarma

Download for Free click here

source

Transcript Materi Kuliah Ekonomi

Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems,
Seventh Edition

Chapter 8
Enterprise Information Systems

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-1
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Learning Objectives


Learn the basic concepts in enterprise information systems.

Determine how to extract information needs for a DSS.

Compare features and capabilities of EIS and DSS.

Learn the relationship between and amongst business
intelligence/DSS systems.

Understand the capabilities of enterprise information portals.

Examine supply chain management issues.

Discuss customer relationship management concepts.

Understand how the Web impacts EIS, and vice versa.

Describe how EIS has improved decision making.

Learn emerging and future EIS.
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-2
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
United States Military Turns to
Portals Vignette


Implement Web-based portals to
enhance communications

Allows quick dispersal of combat
intelligence

Improve quality of life issues

Connect support applications with
tactical applications

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-3
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Enterprise Information Systems


Executive information system

Computer system that allows executives access to
management reports

Drill-down capabilities

User-friendly

Executive support systems

Comprehensive executive support system

Includes communication, office automation, analysis
support, business intelligence

Enterprise information systems

Corporate-wide system

Not restricted to executives

Business intelligence
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-4
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Information Flows


Internal information
from functional
units

External
information from
Internet, news
media, government

Environmental
scanning
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Capabilities of Enterprise
Information System


Drill-down paths

Supported by star or snowflake schemas

Critical success factors

Strategic, managerial, or operational

Sources: organizational, industrial,
environmental

Types of information monitored:

Key problem narratives

Highlight charts

Top level financials

Key factors

Detailed key performance indicator responsibility
reports
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-6
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Capabilities of Enterprise
Information System, continued


Status Access

Relevance of latest data of key indicators

Analysis

Built-in analytical functions

Integration with DSS products

Analysis by intelligent agents

Exception reporting

Management by exception to standards

Navigation of information

Large amounts of data can be analyzed

Audio and Visual

Use of colors and sounds

Communications

E-mail, GSS, news groups, interface with voice mail
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-7
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-8
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Comparing EIS to DSS


EIS

Supports upper management in discovering problems and
opportunities

Repetitive analysis

High speed

GUI based

DSS

Analyzes specific problem or opportunity

Ad hoc analysis

Effective

May have GUI

Integration

Uses EIS output to launch DSS

Data from same places

Integrates user roles

Third party software
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-9
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-10
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
EIS Data Access and Use


Data usually comes from single
warehouse

Advanced data visualization

Combines multidimensional analysis
with OLAP

Spreadsheets and graphics

Slice and dice

Web ready
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-11
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Enterprise Portals


Corporate portals

Integrate internal and external applications

Web-based interface

Effective distribution of information

Encourage collaboration

Data visualization tools

Customized

Search engines
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-12
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Soft Information


Information for questionable sources
that is used informally

Vague

Unofficial

News reports and external data sources

Predictions and speculations

Explanations and justifications

Opinions and gut feelings

Rumors and hearsay
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-13
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Organizational Decisional Support
Systems


Focused on organizational task or
activity

affects several units

Cuts across hierarchy layers

Cuts across functional groups

Computer based

Communication technology

Can be integrated into a DSS or EIS
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-14
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Supply Chains


Old

Supply chain

Material flow from sources to finished product and
disbursement within the organization

Demand chain

Order generation, taking, and fulfillment

New

Flow of material, information, services from suppliers
through manufacturer to end user

Supply chain management

Planning, organization, and coordination of supply chain
activities

Increase effectiveness

Reduce risk

Decrease cycle time

Improve customer service
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-15
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Supply Chains


Upstream = suppliers

Internal supply chain = changing inputs to outputs

Downstream = distribution
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-16
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Value Chains

• Porter’s value chain model
– Primary activities
• Inbound logistics
• Operations
• Outbound logistics
• Marketing and sales
• Customer service
– Support activities
• Organization’s infrastructure
• Human resource management
• Technology development
• Procurement
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-17
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Value System


Value chain is part of larger stream
called value system

Includes tiers of suppliers

Value chains of distributors

Buyers

Extended supply chain

Maximize and optimize total value of
chain
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-18
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Supply Chain Problems


Uncertainties

Demand forecasts

Delivery time

Quality issues

Need to coordinate activities

Other issues

Poor customer service

Obtaining real time data on chain status

Cultural problems
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-19
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Supply Chain Problem Solutions


Solutions

Inventory management

Shipping management

Efficient purchasing

JIT

CRM

Collaboration along chain

Strategic partnerships

Reduce number of intermediaries

Outsourcing
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-20
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Material Resource Planning


MRP system

Production plan for 100% capacity

Inventory models

Master production schedule

Component lists

CRP system

Added factory and machine capacities

MRPII system

Added financial and resource planning
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-21
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Integration

Tangible benefits:

Inventory reduction

Personnel reduction

Improved productivity

Cost reductions

Increased revenues

Delivery improvement

Order management

Reduction in
maintenance

Intangible benefits:

Visibility of information

Improved processes

Better customer service

Standardization

Flexibility

Globalization

Improved employee
satisfaction

Increased business
performance
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-22
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Enterprise Resource Planning

• ERP
– Computer system that integrates all of an
organization’s departments and functions
• Shortens production times
• Based on value chain view
• Decreases costs in chain
• Expensive
• Increases customer service
• Single interface
• Facilitates business process changes
• Automates key business processes
– SCM provides intelligent decision support
• Overlay ERP
• Advanced planning and scheduling modules
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-23
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Enterprise Resource Planning

• Options
– Build your own
– Off-the-shelf packages
– Outsource
• Application Service Providers
• Problems
– High failure rate
– ERP is a formal business process
– Organization’s processes don’t match the
ERP’s
– Software capability and needs vary
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-24
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Customer Resource Management
Systems (CRM)


Enterprise approach

Communication based

Focused on:

Customer acquisition

Customer retention

Customer loyalty

Customer profitability

Empowers employees

Enables one-to-one marketing

Allows for proper allocation of resources to
each customer class
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-25
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
CRM


Relationship technologies

Data warehouses

Foundation for CRM

Business intelligence/business analytics

Data mining

Predictive analytics determine relationships

OLAP

Integrated with:

GIS = geographical preferences

Revenue management optimization software =
optimized pricing

Data mining workbench = targets promotions
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-26
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
CRM

Benefits:

Decrease expense of
recruiting customer

Reduce sales costs

Greater profitability
through targeting and
segmentation

Increase customer
retention

Increase customer
loyalty

Improve customer
service

Customer-focused

Issues:

Failure to use software

Integration

Organizational culture

Expensive

Adapting business
processes

Retention of employees

Training

Allocation of time for
deployment

Commitment from top
management
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-27
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
CRM


Success

Often intangible

Improved customer satisfaction

Tangible

Reduced reporting cycle

Reduced expense of doing business

Reduced sales cycle

Increased productivity

Increased sale

Indications

Systems used to meet key customer needs

Make in-depth analysis of customer costs and potential
profits

Information linked from disparate business units

Employees empowered to handle customers’ problems
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-28
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Product Lifecycle Management
(PLM)


Integrated, information driven

Includes all aspects of product’s life

Goals

Streamline development

Increase innovation

Requires integration of independent
databases

Shares information about product among
different groups, both inside and outside
organization
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-29
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
PLM


Tracks electronic information about life of
product

Links together all required processes

Integrates nodules and tools into single
application suite

Enhances communication and collaboration

Product data is central component

Repository

Specifications, requirements, design documents,
manufacturing plans, and support

Available to all stakeholders at all times
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-30
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
PLM


Benefits: •
Issues:

Flexibility –
Support from senior
management

Reduced change
orders –
User involvement

Improved design –
Training

Reduced production –
Integration
times

Reduced time to market

Improved quality
control

Collaboration

Centralized repository
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-31
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Business Process Management
Systems (BPM)


Integrates data, applications, and people through business
process

Streamlined

Automates processes

Less administration

Graphical map of processes

Enterprise information portal into business processes

Integrates systems

Provides view of organization’s health and progress

Unifies rules, processes, methods, and workflows

Benefits

Links legacy systems to newer workflows

Issues

Forces review of processes
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-32
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Business Activity Monitoring
Systems (BAM)


Real time systems monitoring specific facility

Detects opportunities, problems, and threats

Modeling function for solutions

Collaboration

Fast response

Benefits

Recognizing and responding to events

Allows for quick resolution

Issues

Senior management support

Change in business processes

Requires identification of CSFs and proper analytical
techniques
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-33
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Frontline Decision Support
Systems


Frontline decision-making

Automate decision processes and push
them down the organization or out to
partners

Empowers employees

Incorporates decision-making into daily
work

Provides right questions to ask

Locates needed data

Provides metrics for use with data
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-34
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Future Developments


Hardware and software advances

Virtual reality

Three-dimensional image displays

Increased utilization of multimedia

Increased collaboration

Improved communication

Automated support

Intelligent agents
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 8-35
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang