Materi Kuliah Decision Support System Development

materi-kuliah-decision-support-system-developmentEkonomi.dikampus.com – Materi Kuliah Decision Support System Development ini diajarkan di Universitas Gunadarma

Download for Free click here

source

Transcript Materi Kuliah Ekonomi

Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems,
Seventh Edition

Chapter 6
Decision Support System
Development

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-1
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Learning Objectives


Understand the concepts of systems development.

Learn PADI, the phases of SDLC.

Describe prototyping.

Understand which factors lead to DSS success or
failure.

Learn the importance of project management.

Describe the three technology levels of DSS.

Understand the learning process involved in DSS
development.
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-2
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Osram Sylvania Thinks Small,
Strategizes Big-Develops the Infonet
HR Portal System Vignette

Creation of a specialized business portal to
solve specific problem

Prototype

Interactive, Web-based

HR portal

Think small, strategize big

Focus on key problems first

Plan to achieve quick small successes

Intranet-based portal for hiring, job
postings, benefits, bonuses, retirement
information
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-3
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Systems Development Life Cycle


Four phases

Planning

Analysis

Design

Implementation

Cyclical

Can return to other
phases

Waterfall model
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Tools


Computer-aided software design tools

Upper CASE –

Creates systems diagrams

Lower CASE

Manages diagrams and code

Integrated CASE

Combination

RAD design tools

Enterprise class repository and collaboration

UML modeling

Analysis and design software

Code debugging methods

Testing and quality assurance tools
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-5
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Successful Project Management


Establish a baseline

Define scope of project

Manage change and scope creep

Get support from upper management

Establish timelines, milestones, and
budgets based on realistic goals

Involve users

Document everything
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-6
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Implementation Failures


Lack of stakeholder involvement

Incomplete requirements

Scope creep

Unrealistic expectations

Project champion leaves

Lack of skill or expertise

Inadequate human resources

New technologies
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-7
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Evolutionary Disruptors


Development environment

Organizational cultural factors

Loss of top management support

User and analyst attitude

User experience

Development team capability

Development process

User education, support, involvement,
training
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-8
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Project Management Tools


Project management software can
allow:

Collaboration among disparate teams

Resource and program management

Portfolio management

Web enabled

Aggregates and analyses project data
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-9
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Alternative Development
Methodologies


Parallel development

Multiple development on separate systems

RAD

Quick development allowing fast, but limited
functionality

Phased development

Sequential serial development

Prototyping

Rapid development of portions of projects for user
input and modification

Small working model or may become functional part of
final system

Throwaway prototyping

Pilot test or simple development platforms
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-10
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-11
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Agile Development


Rapid prototyping

Used for:

Unclear or rapidly changing
requirements

Speedy development

Heavy user input

Incremental delivery with short time
frames

Tend to have integration problems
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-12
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS Development Methodology


Prototyping

Iterative design

Evolutionary development

Middle out process

Adaptive design

Incremental design
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-13
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS Prototyping


Short steps

Planning

Analysis

Design

Prototype

Immediate stakeholder feedback

Iterative

In development of prototype

Within the system in general

Evaluation integral part

Control mechanism
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-14
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS Prototyping

Advantages

User and management
involvement

Learning explicitly
integrated

Prototyping bypasses
information requirement

Short intervals between
iterations

Low cost

Improved user
understanding of
system

Disadvantages

Changing requirements

May not have thorough
understanding of
benefits and costs

Poorly tested

Dependencies,
security, and safety
may be ignored

High uncertainty

Problem may get lost

Reduction in quality

Higher costs due to
multiple productions
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-15
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Change Management


Crucial to DSS

People resistant to change

Examine cause of change

May require organizational culture shift

Lewin-Schein change theory steps

Unfreeze

Create awareness of need for change

People support what they help create

Move

Develop new methods and behaviors

Create and maintain momentum

Refreeze

Reinforce desired changes

Establish stable environment
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-16
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS Technology Levels


DSS primary tools

Fundamental elements

Programming languages, graphics, editors, query systems

DSS generator (engine)

Integrated software package for building specific DSS

Modeling, report generation, graphics, risk analysis

Specific DSS

DSS application that accomplishes the work

DSS primary tools are used to construct integrated
tools that are used to construct specific tools
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-17
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-18
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS


Hardware

PCs to multiprocessor mainframes

Software

Involves multiple criteria

Develop in house, outsource, or buy off the
shelf

Off the shelf software rapidly updated; many on
market

Prices fluctuate

Different tools available
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-19
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS


Team developed DSS requires substantial
effort to build and manage

End user developed DSS

Decision-makers and knowledge workers
develop to solve problems or enhance
productivity

Advantages

Short delivery time

User requirements specifications are eliminated

Reduced implementation problems

Low costs

Risks

Quality may be low

May have lack of documentation

Security risks may increase
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-20
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
DSS


DSS is much more than just a DBMS,
MBMS, GUI, interface, and
knowledge component
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 6-21
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang