Materi Kuliah Knowledge Management

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Transcript Materi Kuliah Ekonomi

Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems,
Seventh Edition

Chapter 9
Knowledge Management

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-1
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Learning Objectives


Define knowledge.

Learn the characteristics of knowledge management.

Describe organizational learning.

Understand the knowledge management cycle.

Understand knowledge management system technology and how it
is implemented.

Learn knowledge management approaches.

Understand the activities of the CKO and knowledge workers.

Describe the role of knowledge management in the organization.

Be able to evaluate intellectual capital.

Understand knowledge management systems implementation.

Illustrate the role of technology, people, and management with
regards to knowledge management.

Understand the benefits and problems of knowledge management
initiatives.

Learn how knowledge management can change organizations.
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-2
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang

Siemens Knows What It Knows Through
Knowledge Management Vignette

 


Knowledge management

Community of interest

Repositories

Communities of practice

Informal knowledge-sharing techniques

Employee initiated

Created ShareNet

Easy to share knowledge

Incentives for posting

Internal evangelists responsible for training,
monitoring, and assisting users

Top management support
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang

Knowledge Management


Process to help organization identify,
select, organize, disseminate, transfer
information

Structuring enables problem-solving,
dynamic learning, strategic planning,
decision-making

Leverage value of intellectual capital
through reuse
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge


Data = collection of facts, measurements,
statistics

Information = organized data

Knowledge = contextual, relevant,
actionable information

Strong experiential and reflective elements

Good leverage and increasing returns

Dynamic

Branches and fragments with growth

Difficult to estimate impact of investment

Uncertain value in sharing

Evolves over time with experience
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge


Explicit knowledge

Objective, rational, technical

Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports

Codified

Leaky knowledge

Tacit knowledge

Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning

Highly personalized

Difficult to formalize

Sticky knowledge
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-6
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management


Systematic and active management
of ideas, information, and knowledge
residing within organization’s

employees


Knowledge management systems
– Use of technologies to manage
knowledge

Used with turnover, change, downsizing

Provide consistent levels of service
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-7
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Organizational Learning


Learning organization

Ability to learn from past

To improve, organization must learn

Issues

Meaning, management, measurement

Activities

Problem-solving, experimentation, learning from past, learning from
acknowledged best practices, transfer of knowledge within
organization

Must have organizational memory, way to save and share it

Organizational learning

Develop new knowledge

Corporate memory critical

Organizational culture

Pattern of shared basic assumptions
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management
Initiatives


Aims

Make knowledge visible

Develop knowledge intensive culture

Build knowledge infrastructure

Surrounding processes

Creation of knowledge

Sharing of knowledge

Seeking out knowledge

Using knowledge
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-9
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management
Initiatives


Knowledge creation

Generating new ideas, routines, insights

Modes

Socialization, externalization, internalization,
combination

Knowledge sharing

Willing explanation to another directly or
through an intermediary

Knowledge seeking

Knowledge sourcing
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Approaches to Knowledge
Management


Process Approach

Codifies knowledge

Formalized controls, approaches, technologies

Fails to capture most tacit knowledge

Practice Approach

Assumes that most knowledge is tacit

Informal systems

Social events, communities of practice, person-toperson
contacts

Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit, capture it,
add to it, transfer it
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-11
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Approaches to Knowledge
Management


Hybrid Approach

Practice approach initially used to store explicit
knowledge

Tacit knowledge primarily stored as contact information

Best practices captured and managed

Best practices

Methods that effective organizations use to operate and
manage functions

Knowledge repository

Place for capture and storage of knowledge

Different storage mechanisms depending upon data
captured
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-12
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management System
Cycle


Creates knowledge
through new ways of doing
things

Identifies and captures new
knowledge

Places knowledge into
context so it is usable

Stores knowledge in
repository

Reviews for accuracy and
relevance

Makes knowledge
available at all times to
anyone
Disseminate
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Components of Knowledge
Management Systems


Technologies

Communication

Access knowledge

Communicates with others

Collaboration

Perform groupwork

Synchronous or asynchronous

Same place/different place

Storage and retrieval

Capture, storing, retrieval, and management of both
explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative
systems
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Components of Knowledge
Management Systems


Supporting technologies

Artificial intelligence

Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent
agents

Intelligent agents

Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance

Knowledge discovery in databases

Process used to search for and extract information

Internal = data and document mining

External = model marts and model warehouses

XML

Extensible Markup Language

Enables standardized representations of data

Better collaboration and communication through portals
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management
System Implementation


Challenge to identify and integrate components

Early systems developed with networks, groupware,
databases

Knowware

Technology tools that support knowledge management

Collaborative computing tools

Groupware

Knowledge servers

Enterprise knowledge portals

Document management systems

Content management systems

Knowledge harvesting tools

Search engines

Knowledge management suites

Complete out-of-the-box solutions
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management
System Implementation


Implementation

Software packages available

Include one or more tools

Consulting firms

Outsourcing

Application Service Providers
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management System
Integration


Integration with enterprise and
information systems

DSS/BI

Integrates models and activates them for specific
problem

Artificial Intelligence

Expert system = if-then-else rules

Natural language processing = understanding
searches

Artificial neural networks = understanding text

Artificial intelligence based tools = identify and
classify expertise
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management System
Integration


Database

Knowledge discovery in databases

CRM

Provide tacit knowledge to users

Supply chain management systems

Can access combined tacit and explicit knowledge

Corporate intranets and extranets

Knowledge flows more freely in both directions

Capture knowledge directly with little user involvement

Deliver knowledge when system thinks it is needed
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Human Resources


Chief knowledge officer

Senior level

Sets strategic priorities

Defines area of knowledge based on organization mission and goals

Creates infrastructure

Identifies knowledge champions

Manages content produced by groups

Adds to knowledge base

CEO

Champion knowledge management

Upper management

Ensures availability of resources to CKO

Communities of practice

Knowledge management system developers

Team members that develop system

Knowledge management system staff

Catalog and manage knowledge
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Knowledge Management
Valuation


Asset-based approaches

Identifies intellectual assets

Focuses on increasing value

Knowledge linked to applications and
business benefits approaches

Balanced scorecard

Economic value added

Inclusive valuation methodology

Return on management ratio

Knowledge capital measure

Estimated sale price approach
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Metrics


Financial

ROI

Perceptual, rather than absolute

Intellectual capital not considered an asset

Non-financial

Value of intangibles

External relationship linkages capital

Structural capital

Human capital

Social capital

Environmental capital
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 9-22
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Factors Leading to Success and
Failure of Systems


Success

Companies must assess need

System needs technical and organizational infrastructure
to build on

System must have economic value to organization

Senior management support

Organization needs multiple channels for knowledge
transfer

Appropriate organizational culture

Failure

System does not meet organization’s needs

Lack of commitment

No incentive to use system

Lack of integration
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang