Materi Kuliah Integration, Impacts, and the Future of Management-Support Systems

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Transcript Materi Kuliah Ekonomi

Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems,
Seventh Edition

Chapter 15
Integration, Impacts, and the Future
of Management-Support Systems

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 15-1
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Learning Objectives


Learn the processes of systems integration for MSS.

Understand the difficulties in integrating systems.

Describe major models in integration.

Define intelligent DSS.

Understand concept of intelligent modelling.

Know MSS integration with enterprise and Web systems.

Describe impacts of MSS on organization.

Learn the potential impact of MSS on individuals.

Define societal impacts of MSS.

Be cognizant of the ethical and legal issues of MSS.

Understanding the digital divide.

Describe Internet communities.

Overview of future of MSS.
www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 15-2
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Systems Integration


Functional integration

Different applications provided as single system

Across differing MSS or within MSS

Solves repetitive problems

Integration of MSS techniques to build specific MSS

Physical integration

Hardware, software, and communications integration

Applications integration

Data, applications, methods, and processes

Develop level integration

Integrate to increase capabilities

Integrate to enhance intelligent tools
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Models


Integration of expert systems and DSS

Expert systems attached to DSS

ES 1: Database intelligent component

ES 2: Intelligent agent for model base and management

ES 3: System for improving user interface

ES 4: Consultant to DSS

ES 5: Consultant to users

Usually, only one or two are attached

Expert system as separate components

Expert systems output as input to DSS

DSS output as input to expert system

Feedback

Expert systems generation of alternatives to DSS

Unified approach
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Models


Tight integration due to shared
interfaces and resources

Shared decision-making

Expandable to other intelligent systems

Can integrate EIS, DSS and expert
systems

Information from EIS is inputted into DSS

DSS feedback to EIS

Expert system used for interpretation,
explanation
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Intelligent DSS


Active DSS

Intelligent component

Symbiotic

Understands domain and provides
explanations

Helps formulate problems

Relates problems to solver

Interprets results

Explains results and decisions
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Intelligent DSS


Self-evolving DSS

Aware of how it is being used and adapts to
needs of use

Dynamic menus

User interface

Intelligent model-based management system

Problem management

Automate processes by dividing into smaller
steps

Specific architecture to support functional
requirements
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang

Intelligent Modeling


Intelligence added to allow input of expertise

Multiple models available

Construction

Simplify real world situation

Less complex version of reality

Use of models

Some judgmental values

Expert systems supply sensitivity analysis

Expert systems provide result explanations, patterns,
anomalies

Most based on quantitative models
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Integration


Increases functionality

Makes enterprise systems more user
friendly

Provides greater flexibility

Saves money by integration various
systems

Enables easier integration of
functional systems
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Integration


ERP

Integrates analytical capabilities

Supply chain systems

Enhance capabilities

Optimize tools

Knowledge management systems

Communication, collaboration, storage

DSS integration

Intelligent systems integration

Data mining tools with manufacturing systems

DSS and learning systems

Data mining with business modeling
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Issues


Cost-benefit justifications

Feasibility

Architecture choices

Infrastructure

Development process and tools

Connectivity

Web-based integration

Data issues

Legal issues and privacy

New technology introduction, integration
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Impacts of MSS


Organizational

Culture

Creation of new departments

Virtual teams

Business process reengineering

Business simulation tools

Increased production

Increased customer satisfaction

Improvement in quality

Supply chain management improvements

Improved performance of managers and
employees
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Impacts of MSS


Individual

Increased job satisfaction

Negative effect on individuality

Dehumanization

Job stress

Lack of cooperation by expert
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Impacts of MSS


Societal

Positive effects

Reduction or elimination of humans in hazardous positions

Increased opportunities for disabled, home bound, and
single parents

Telecommuting

Improved health care

Improved quality of life

Negative effects

Computer fraud and embezzlement

Identity theft

Neglect of family

Increased power due to increased centralization of
organizations
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Legal and Privacy Issues


Antitrust

Unfair competition

Unreasonable personal intrusion

Collection of information about individuals

Ethics

Personal values

Intellectual property rights

Copyright

Trademarks

Domain names

Patents

Computer abuse

Electronic surveillance

Use of proprietary databases

Data integrity
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Impacts of Artificial Intelligence


Increased employment through newly
created MSS-related jobs

Massive unemployment through
automation of processes

Social implications

Increased leisure time

Government intervention with
employment levels

Increased wealth
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Internet Communities


Groups of people with common interests

Interact through Internet

Types

Communities of transactions

Facilitate buying and selling

Communities of interest

Based on specific topic

Communities of relations

Organized around life experiences

Communities of fantasy

Based on imaginary environments

Game playing
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Digital Divide


Growing gap between those who
have and those who do not have
access to technology

Exists within and between countries
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Future of MSS


MSS is becoming a Web-based technology

Combining and integration with business intelligence

BI is being combined with a number of Web-based
applications

Intelligent systems are being employed in the war against
terrorism

Web-based advisory services are being developed

More complex MSS applications are being developed

Trend toward increasing intelligence of systems

Pervasive computing

MSS are being disseminated via ASPs

Natural language based search engines

Semantic web
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Future of MSS


Voice technologies are being enriched through use of MSS

CRM improvement

Improvement along supply chain through integration with
ERP

Expertise availability on Internet

Initiation of formal knowledge-management programs

More intelligent agents on Internet and other networks

Greater use of wireless technologies

Intelligent agents will roam the Internet, intranets, and
extranets to monitor information and assist in decisionmaking

Increase in groupware technologies for collaboration and
communication

DSS for e-commerce

Decision-support tools for e-commerce will be expanded
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