Materi Kuliah Collaborative Computing Technologies: Group Support Systems

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Transcript Materi Kuliah Ekonomi

Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems,
Seventh Edition

Chapter 7
Collaborative Computing
Technologies: Group Support
Systems

www.ekonomi.dikampus.com © 2005 Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and 7-1
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Learning Objectives


Understand concepts and fundamentals of groupwork,
communications, and collaboration.

Examine how computer systems enhance communication
and collaboration.

Understand the principles and capabilities of GSS.

Explore the concepts of time/place frameworks.

Learn how GSS interplays with the concepts of process gain
and loss, and task gain and loss.

See how GSS utilizes parallelism and anonymity.

Understand the fundamentals of electronic meetings.

Examine GSS’ three technologies.

Learn how the Web enables GSS, electronic meetings, and
collaborative computing.

Explain hoe distance learning is enabled by GSS.

Show how GSS enhances creativity.
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Chrysler Scores with Groupware
Vignette


SCORE initiative

Identified waste in supply chain

Enhanced relationships

Accessed through Internet or modem

Enhanced communication and
collaboration

Used good project management
principles
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Groupwork


Groupwork

Collaboration and communication

Members can be located in different places and
work at different times

Information may be located external to the project

Allows for rapid solutions

May exhibit normal team problems of synergy or
conflict

Often Internet based

Groupware tools support groupwork

Work called computer-supported cooperative work

Collaborative computing
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Communication Support


No collaboration without
communication

Internet supplies fast, reliable,
inexpensive support

Groups need not only communication,
but information and knowledge
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Time/Place Communication
Framework


Effectiveness of
collaborative
group depends
on

Time

synchronous or
asynchronous
transmission of
information

Place

location of
participants
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Prentice Hall, Decision Support Systems and
Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Groupware


Software providing collaborative support to groups

Different time/place applications

Most use Internet technologies

Most offer one or more capabilities

Electronic brainstorming

Free flow of ideas and comments

Electronic conferencing or videoconferencing

Group scheduling and calendars

Conflict resolution

Model building

Electronic document sharing

Voting services

Electronic meeting services also available

Enterprise-wide systems expensive in cost and human
resources
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Popular Groupware


Lotus Notes/Domino

Microsoft Netmeeting

Groove Workspace

GroupSystems MeetingRoom and
OnLine

WebEx
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Benefits and Problems


Benefits of groupwork

Process gains

Nominal group technique

Delphi method

Technology applied as GSS

Hardware and software combined to enhance
groupwork

Collaborative computing

Problems in groupwork

Process losses

inefficient
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS


Common group activities with computer
assistance

Information retrieval

Information sharing

Parallelism

Anonymity

Information use

Support participants

Improve productivity and effectiveness of
meetings

More efficient decision-making

Increase effectiveness of decisions
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS Technology Deployment


Special purpose decision room

Electronic meeting rooms

Software operates across LAN

Allowed for face-to-face meetings

Trained facilitator coordinates meeting

Group leader structures meeting with facilitator

Multiple use facility

General purpose computer lab

Effective way to lower costs

Trained facilitator coordinates meeting

Group leader structures meeting with facilitator

Web-based groupware with clients

Anytime/anyplace meetings with deadlines established

Software bought or leased

No facility costs

Flexible
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS Meeting Process


Group leader meets with facilitator to plan meeting structure.

Participants meet on computers.

Group leader or facilitator poses question.

Participants brainstorm by entering comments into computer.

Facilitator employs idea organization software to sort
comments into common themes.

Results are displayed.

Facilitator or group leader leads discussion.

Themes are prioritized.

Highest priority topics are either sent through the process
again for further discussion or a vote is taken.
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS Meeting Process


Standard Process

Exploratory idea generation

Idea organization tool

Prioritization

New idea generation

Selection of final idea

Success based upon effectiveness,
reduction in costs, better decisions,
increased productivity
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS and Distance Education

• Classroom collaborative computing advantages
– Brainstorming, chat, discussion boards
– Distribution of information, lectures
• Publishes to course site
• Videoconferenced
• Consistent materials
– Textbooks can be bound or electronic
– E-mails and listservs
• One-on-one interaction
– Allows for global classrooms
– Anytime/anyplace with fixed deadlines
• Flexible time frame
• Doesn’t interfere with work shift
– Low delivery costs with large audiences
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
GSS and Distance Education,
continued


Disadvantages:

Fewer social interactions

Communication problems

Students must be self-starters and highly disciplined

Classes require major technical and administrative support

Technical infrastructure must be reliable

Courses may need to be redesigned for online

Special training

Corporate training online:

Allows anytime/anyplace training

Lowers costs

Decreases time away from jobs

Shortens learning process

Delivered via Intranet, intranets, extranets, audio and video
conferencing
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang
Creativity Support System


Creativity

Fundamental human trait

Level of achievement

Can be learned

Organizations recognize value in innovation

Stimulated by electronic brainstorming software

Free flow idea generation

Creative computer programs

Smartbots function as facilitators

Identify analogies in letter patterns

Draw art

Write poems

Computer programs stimulate human productivity
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Intelligent Systems, 7th Edition, Turban, Aronson, and Liang